wϾ õ < ... < ߨ pwN < ߨ pwN < p Ap 

Ap Dlk qC õ

Ap Dlk qC õ k Х

kp DFq k qC DJ FC CpF Ap kCk pnN O iv Ap DDFq qC oDOhDF G @@ ok  
PvC õ C CpF koCk kiF ߥi GDi DFq lC qC p .uDwdC î lOvC qC lNoDG@ @ 
.qCkpJ õ oDFok Ap p vopF F iF C ok .k pk A CpF

ܷ ClF C ?ph PvC PWd õ DA ߤC þ Dϵ pGN F PvC lv Ap pqC õ DA @G@F D@F  
? D l ص A G pF koCnF CpOdC ClF pF lDF DA lzDF õ fe PDok DC ODok pC @ P@vC 
ص pC ?PzCk lCh HD D koCk on Co C lClh DA kz Dh HNp koC ok DDdC l @@ p@C 
?ph D kp lCh MCqDW Co C ,kp ص ,kp dPõ C DF CpZ k C F lClh DA l

õ Plv k

p rV - DN ClOFC qC r vC Dϵ .PvC PFDR ykh DV ok vC p qC õ PWd Plv @w@  
.lCkoA EDweF þ DoDZ FD rV CpA lCOzCl lkpN õ Plv ok Cla - lC

Ap p qC õ F Mߵk -1

- Oi DeC F Ap .D UCpiOvC Ap kh qC Co õ PWd k Pwq O Ap oDFok Z D  
,Pz kld qC CN ko ok DN .PvC kp DC Co õ Plv - Oi DeDF lDN ߥ@h @F 
.l ÷N A oDFok DN Ckp cp Co ߨ C ; PvC lz oDzC w C F DA ok kpF D Ap A kDO@ 
:lDp Ap .oA DOCpF Ap rCPz pGN qC DS CܷF

p lOw Dw@ (1) DlGV pNlF(22 A DC ov) ÷ nC GC ٥C C lܵ EClCpz C  
.l÷

Co Pd PvC kp qC Ovk A o߲ F ,Pw ߩ p , p qC Ap o߲ PvC fC O@G@C  
CpF Dp PvC rVD Dd lz qC z .l CpOC DFq F lz D lܡ@F l@@C@h@@ 
pGN F lOC oDF lpZ CpF DN DFq .PvC p Ap p qC koCk kDA MGrh M@ l@@@z 
.PvC Ap

,Pw DA lGq DwC D Co kCpC C Ap .lp kv h lC qC lOw Dw r ÷@  
ok ldN w cp ب pk @A @ ok (2) .lk oCp h HDi DDJoDZ DF MDCd v ok 
:lDp ϵD ldN DC ldN ko

.C mDF p koDF DC lvp Co xa(100 A x ov) C mDF C N C x D D

Co A ;lk DN Co DwC OvCpF koCl CpA ok eN Pp m p D w C cp@ D@G@l@F  
:l DGk Z

.lk oCp lJ l ÷N DA pF (100 A x ov) ÷ lC ϵ xVpC зW

MDA .PvC k ÷N F Mߵk FD PlF Į C cԮDF Ap ,kp pm CܷF A k @C ok  
l Div pk MoDG@F (3) l DC Co õ Plv CrOC PlF Ap loCk kV r pk oDwF 
:lGϬ õ lOvC pd qC S .Pw pnJ DC lzDF lz OplJ õ PWd A lF DA ypnJ

D PvC PWd lv õ l DF Co Pd C lCh CrOC lF(111 A pF ov) DpF C@ND@ @  
:lk HNpN î uD kVC HVC Mld MDGRC CpF Dvo C

kp DSOvC Co l ;kCk ǡN pz Ap DWC ok(22 A DGC ov) DNlw CC A D D  
DF DC l Co DkC qC F pd C lCh õ o pF lDN C DF Ap .PvC Op lkD Co @D@N 
DFC ,lFD Co A ok Clh o DN PhClC oDF Co H DN kp 쮷N Co pǾ lDF lz CpF PvC D@F @@ 
.lD

Ϸ ϵ D qC kDOvC -2

DF DA Ϸ ϵ DGNoC ok Co Dw PvC C PvC D PDC õ CpF Ap lk D pk k  
A DF .kpF oDF kpz pOe Co A kh Ap PvC õ MCpǿN DJ Pϵ ФC Ϸ Pϵ FCo .l 
qC iv DG PvC Ϸ Pϵ D lpA r lClh r lClh l@@ @i@v Cl@h H@D@V qC Ap@ 
D GGw GGv D qC l PϿ ߨ C qC C DF loCk oCp A kD Ϸ Pϵ PwCoD 
:lDp pF p ok Co A C ,DS CܷF .lClF D C o Co DllJ D l kD

(11 A lo ov) wDF D Cp Od F D C C

إN oDOhC CoD qC Co Pzpv lClh PvClh koC DF DOzpv PvC Pvok lF l@C@h@  
b Pzpv Clh loCk D DOzpv F .lk DWC Cr oD l @e@N C p@F p@@F @@ 
lD ,PvC Dzkh F Fp aA ok ,Dzkh DA C p ,l ߵ VF ki@F k@h Co C@@D@V 
.lk pN ,PvC Dkp D F Fp aA ... DOVC hC DD

uok A qC ,lqCkpKF J CC Pznpv CdC ok D F DN l ߡN Co DDw Ap p@k @v qC  
DF qC DOzpv pC kF kDN Cr uDvC pF DD DO CC Pznpv pC PvC lF .lpF MpG@ 
pF lk pnN lCh lDN C DF Ap .PzCl ܷ qAlJ D pk lkp @@@e@N @@D@J @F 
Pzpv lzDF pk DV Cpz FD CDV Cpz pC HNpN C F .PvC Dd ldC MDD CC Pzpv 
:lDp pk A ok .kF lCh yoDOC ok DV D

O oC Cpw ϾC .l p Ϯ pF Dzp ϵ Dh D DDC p @ D@@  
(46 45 MDA Xd ov) ...DF ߷w CmC C DF ÷ E

Dpz A C lD DiF lkF ߻ Ov ϱ F Dd A ok Co C D Cpk pz DwF @Z  
C Dkp C .P HdDF D Dp Z lDF Ю EA DND DZ Z PvC Cp kD@@F qC 
DN ok ... lpF uok DA qC lD D CC CdC ok l ykp q o ok lCh D@A D@q 
G Dܷ F Ϸ ϵ FCo ypnJ PvC Ϸ ϵ ٲ l CrOC PlF MDD G H@D@ @C 
.PvC õ Plv

DdC wϾ -3

C pC C Dܷ .l pm wϾ ,DoOvk DdC CpF PvC C Ap p qC õ PWd k qC pk @@ 
oCp DdC ϵ wv ok lvD fD l ߤC Dϵ .lzDF Peϥ C Ϸ lz kCk oOvk PvC 
:l oAkD Co yCwϾ pk DV ok loCk DKF qD l DW ok Ap S .lp

(45 A MGܵ ov) pC DeC ݵ DN ϥC C

oDVrC DlF De qC DwC DN C HGwF lk DN DwC DF Z kkp pnO Co qD@@ @do p@RC  
:l A CpVC F oOvk DGlF l kD qo qC D l ClJ CpC

(183 A pF ov) ON Ϸ G nC ϵ HO D DC ϵ HO

.lk fN DOVC kp De qC DA oDFok ... kDV q p DdC pDv ko ok PvC @@Z  
oDFok lCh DwC qC lk q Dk C GV kF CoD ok DvA DdC F Ap HNpN C F 
.PvC pF pǾ ߾D Dro wv Dp DC l oߥN kkp zo C CpF HϮ DN l lC DA

õ Dzr DF qoDG -4

.PvC õ DdCr DF Ap qoDG ,PvC pNDvo G k qC koCk Pk Ap kr õ PDC pF p@k @@k  
DGOzC oDZk koC oDwF ok DwC pǾ m DF DOl Co GD lDF prD H@Ϯ@ @C f@@@N Cp@F 
Dh HNp r MDvDwdC uCd F Pw õ F pe OGC .PvC XCo Dz D kr ߨ C .kz@ 
HNpN lOvC DwC lOC DNC oDwF õ ko ok .lCkp pm Dh Dk pDF CpF S lz@ 
Cv C DWC .PvC kF PvokD DJ qC lOvC lFDok DDdC lF DC l pWO A uDvC pF lk 
Dv DF , AD kp 쮷N Co lC ,koC CoDJ ok m PvokD kpص vCF lDF DA kz cp 
lO DDwv ,vpJ C jvDJ ok ?k pV DA qC kp ClJ Co m DDh lDF pk EDG@vC 
C F ǡClCk DFCV q C ok vԾ .PvC ߻ oD kp lOvC DvDvC Pw rDV õ p@F kD@@O@C 
F d xa l DGOzC õ lD uCd pDv PvC C DA V qC @ l@CkCk @w@@v 
o DN llz إ pǿO oDZD kG õ koCn oD DWA qC .lk DA qC kp kDOvC @@@@N 
kD ;PvC lz ǡN Pw k qC lOvC p llz O C VO ߨ C vopF ok .l l@v Co D@h 
z (kD) Oo oDF A OhDv ok ... A Dv b p eD DOhDv p@@@ P@vok ,Mo@ 
fD PvC q ,kߡF OhDv D EhPV p qC ,DOhDv A CpF .(Moߤ) PvC Op kiF r D@h 
A Pe ةN CpF lOvC ok .lzDF F fe yC A kz Op p ok A CpF GvD@@ 
D ߮voC Į ,lOvC Moߤ oDFok MD vopF CpF .Noߤ lzDF P@vok yCkD@ @ P@vC q 
F l i Co lOvC Moߤ kF PvokD DPvok kF C oߤ Į .lA kVF oߤ Į@ 
(4) .kߡ lOvC Moߤ ok Dh oDZk DN lD m

Co PV DN Į C .Pw D Moߤ Į DN lOvC Pe ةN CpF PvC C lص w@ D@C  
oCk qD oD F ܷ .oCk q r kD Į ,lOvC kD Ovok qC DجC ߥd CpF .l DN 
.WwF Co pǾ kC P COF A F

r DA ,kp î lOvC Moߤ CpF ߮voC o߮D DN lkp yN MoDk F p Cl@@Ck  
p lk PvlF DoD lOwCN kld DN r q C ok .l xvDN FD Į lOvC kD@ Cp@F 
ok Dh qC Co C l DwC F PwCN kld DN DC ,kG ߮voC Į p@ ,k@F @@ p@@ qC @Z 
p Co Dw lNC oDFok Dh qC pV PV ok Ap lClF pC l HWN lDz DC .koCk qDF l@O@vC 
.koCk lN Щ Щ lN MoDk DSC DtJ pF PvC kp

Ap p qC Dh DD

Co kh pF p@C (5) .kpF DWF Co D DwC PvC C ,l pm Dh CpF Ap DD VqC  
@w@ @C o Ap@ (6) .kDOC lCi DiF ,kpnK ߵ F Co D lzDF FDN Dw ok l l 
ok D PvC D qC pJ pF pǾ Dzr pOorF koCk fpN DW ok Od PvC k lDN oDw@F 
:lDp pGDJ F EDh pk DV

(336 A DC ov) .ߤpiC C ݲC C ߷GO C C Gv ݵ ϩ oC pSC N C

Z l Cp r CpN , pJ DA qC CiF pC N .l pJ D qC lCZ q kp pSC  
.l Dh k F lD FDN kp

:lDp pk A ok D

(36 A pvC ov) ϵ F x D N

PvC kCk pF F Ap oDF C pF lC joDN ߬ ok PvC pnN C . pJ oCl ϵ ClF Co a@A  
.PvC kp Dh C qC Co C

kp qC oDwF .MDvC lN w kz cp DOVC Dw ok hDF lOvC kD ok Dh D k  
D PvC Op oCp G ko DOVC ok rZ ܷ .kz DzoDF ,DOVC oDF ko DrZ lC@@C 
p lDp@ Ap@ (7) .lpnJ lCkp G Co A Ozn Dw C lF Dp lCOpnJ CpA Ozn Dw 
.l kp F CpA A D ,lClF lv CpA lkCk DWC Dz DD Z p C lWwF õ oD DF Co C@w@ 
Pvok Dw DwF lCOpnJ Co A kp DC kF Ϻ D ok lz cp Ozn ok Pw Dw Dw@F 
õ qC lDF Dw C ypnJ ok .lCkp oCkh A G qC CkD lF kp DC lz p ok DD@q ok @ 
oCp pǾ õ FD ok Co kClVC DFA qC pJ HϺC Ap .PhCkpJ lOF Coo C P@p@ kl@ @@l@C 
:lk

pF ov) .lO Dz ÷ DF D C DC ϵ DC D GO F CD C rC D C߷GNC @ @@ CmC  
(170 A

ColJ pC DA ?oCkpF Pvk DColJ Dzo qC DA l .l pJ C MCoOvk qC kz O D@@C @F  
.llF Co DA o߷zF pV lDF Dz ,lOzCl o߷z Dz CokD

oC ok ,A Ovok HV PvC A kF Ϻ k lC Pl l l@D@N Ap@  
C C] S Od .lz kvp lzDF Ozn DA pF Dq olp Ow Dd DC lFD@ Co kD@ 
õ cv DF lDF l Ap .PvC kD oCOvC DVpFDJ ,PvDk Dk DN [wDF D Cp Od F D p@  
lDG kp Do lq DwC F HwZpF C Cpk A lF Co Pvok Clõ lDG .lz pFo Dw DF lC 
eN F kh lDF Cq p ok .PpnJ p orF Piz A D C F OzCk ϷN p @F Co Cl@@@ 
x C qC pJ ,l kD A qC Ap ,Dh kDWC ok p@k p@R@ @D@ (8) .PhCkpJ Dw ko ok vopF 
: F .PvC p p OzCk Dw MDN

lz lzJ p lA p Z  
lz lk wF k qC EDWd l

lCN e ok õ ܷ l pǾ fe lCN l pF CpC pz qC Co kh DwC DN C@w@ p@ ok  
.PvC Fh DS lDz l d Ե qC p DOvCk .lzDG oD ok x C lF ص Pvok

DF DZ ok xW O kzTDF kpF DZ ok Cd pC kF lz cp þ w C d @ Cp@F  
r kh CpF kF prD C kDOC d Ե Dh EA DZ ok Cd D C ok DDNC ?kp lDF Z DZ EA DF ,lD@F 
DZ qC l pJ F Co DZ C C ;PzCk kV kp d DC p lF ko C ok .lF @d D@G@@O@vC 
Ե .l kDOvC DzCF EA F qC l Dh Co DZ EA qC oCl C pk lD kD@O@vC p@@k 
C .kF f ok C kh Cpq l d p lF lCN w C ko ok lz VO@ @@d 
.PhCkpJ CO CoC d ol F x vv oD lF PdCo Dh DF lF lpJ Co DZ ClOFC kCk oOvk k@F 
:lDp Ap DOC ko pnF koCk kDq MCoDzC x C qC PGN q ok Ap

(23 A W ov) xC N D ݲCC ߷GO C

.l pJ Co kh x C ЬDF D qC p rZ

DOzJ

P C DطOvC pCk Fp DFq ok DC kz MCpd Dz DDJoDZ pF Ե lG@V D@@@ @F @FCk -1  
.kz ԬC pOvC D C HvC p DDJoDZ F DN lz kle

:PvC kp DF Co ة DGq PF C ok lv -2

ECk qC PvC pOF kA Į F  
ECߤ p F N qC ECk

qC koCk D CC Pk .oCn A pF Pk vC ,l DCo pk pC F Co D pC kV D p -3  
.PvC pnJ DC Moߤ v F pC C .PvC Pk DA

DN o߲ GNC O S l Pk kh ܷ DN pF A ܷ@ @@FD@ P@k :C  
.PvC A CrVC

A qC PvDWC GNC S .l Pk kh ܷ qC rV pF ܷ ةN Pk:k  
.PvDWC r A oN D DC

kV , z Co [NDd] vC C S l Pk kh ܷ qC UoDh pC pF A ok CrOC Pk:v  
.lA DpDiF Div

C ,PvC lz CpwF Dv D Op Moߤ ϵ DV ok PvC p lZ kld NDDGOzC @V qC -4  
C Z .Pw r lOvC kD Pe l DPe N ,߮voC Į lOzClJ p PvC HϮ 
oCpN oDwF r D Dq ok DGOzC C DvDO .lkCk A kF lDF F d ,kG OhDv ߮@voC Į@@ qC oD@ 
pC .lCl Co A loCl ߮voC Į qC Ovok PhDz Dl lk D pC C OG@C k@z@ 
lOvC Pe N ok ߮voC Į F lDF kDOvC D@O@hD@v D@S@ D@@ qC @@C@i@F 
ok Oo oDF Dv M pVA l CN Dz F .PvC oCk kF PvCo N ok Dz GzPvo 
߮voC Į .PvC oCk kF X DPvCo lk D Dz rZ DN .EߺpD DPvC Eߺp xV qC oC@k 
MD lOvC Moߤ F VCo DN .PvC lz ܺ oDwF OD DN ClءlC pDv vF Dl@F @O@G@C @ 
.lF lCN rZ PvC PDv DNDGRC D lOvC kD ko ok l

voC G C p G Co GϮ b C qC xJ l C .PvC @@ @ MoD@k C l@D@ -5  
Dܷ Con oD CpA kDOvC A qC PzCk kV h DOdC ,DOdC lok pC D@@ @vop@F 
.PvC fe

ݱ D lDF ,k ФDd CN koC ok DOdC ܱ Dw ok PzCk VN lDF OG@C -6  
DWF Co DOdC ݱ A PpnJ lDF DOdC DWF Co DOdC ݱ DWF Co ݱ DC .Pp p ok Co D@@O@dC  
.l Dh kDWC PvC k C .Pp p ok

yo߲ ,lD p PF Co yp ko DPF qC DWA .Pw F DivqC @@ ok H@Ϯ@ @C -7  
.PvC Coo DlN

qC lN w DF lDG l A qC MlF Ap DOVC o D Dq l D DorF D DD qC lN w -8  
Ck qC kDOvC iN PDo pF OG PvC HVC pC kz cp þ ok @ l@C @@C l@@O@W@ 
.kz h DGOzC PvC iN

    p Np kDOvC
    47 e 1 lV Ap DF DzA